2024.02.08 - Introduction to Frequency Control Products: Harmony Electronics’ In-Depth Guide

Introduction to Frequency Control Products: Harmony Electronics’ In-Depth Guide

Welcome to an in-depth guide on frequency products. At Harmony Electronics, we aim to simplify the complex world of frequency control. This guide covers everything from different types of oscillators and crystals to understanding various certifications and their applications.

Deciphering Timing Acronyms

Understanding the abbreviations in frequency control can make a significant difference. Here are some common ones, listed alphabetically:

  • CL: Load Capacitance - The amount of capacitance that must be connected to the oscillator output for optimal frequency stability.
  • ESR: Equivalent Series Resistance - The internal resistance of a crystal that results in power loss and heat generation.
  • OCXO: Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator - An oscillator that maintains a constant temperature for improved frequency stability.
  • TCXO: Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator - An oscillator that adjusts its output based on temperature changes to maintain frequency stability.
  • Thermistor Xtal: A type of crystal that uses a thermistor to compensate for temperature-related frequency changes.
  • VC-TCXO: Voltage-Controlled Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator - This is a type of oscillator that combines temperature compensation and voltage control for higher frequency stability.
  • VCXO: Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator - An oscillator whose frequency is controlled by a voltage input.
  • XO: Crystal Oscillator - A basic type of oscillator that uses a vibrating crystal to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.

Understanding Common Terms in Frequency Control

Demystify the jargon with this alphabetical list of common terms:

  • Crystal Electrodes: Metal plates attached to the quartz crystal that allow it to connect to the oscillator circuit.
  • Fundamental Mode AT Cut: A technique used to manufacture quartz crystals to minimize frequency variations due to temperature changes.
  • Nominal Frequency: The target or desired frequency of the oscillator.
  • Overtone: Frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency.
  • Quartz: A single silicon dioxide (SiO2) crystal used in oscillators for its piezoelectric properties.

Recognizing Certifications

Certifications are a testament to quality and reliability. Here are some key certifications to look for:

  • AEC-Q200: A stress test qualification for passive components, including oscillators, used in automotive applications.
  • IATF-16949: An international standard that specifies requirements for a quality management system in the automotive industry.
  • ISO 9001: This certification ensures that the organization meets the requirements for a quality management system.
  • RoHS Compliance: This certification indicates that the product complies with the restriction of hazardous substances directive.
  • TS16949: A specific type of IATF-16949 certification for automotive-grade products. Harmony's Thermistor Xtal is offered with TS16949 certification.

Common Oscillator Output Terms

Get familiar with these common oscillator output terms:

  • Clipped Sine Wave: An output waveform that has been "clipped" to limit its peak amplitude.
  • HCSL: High-Speed Current Steering Logic - A type of differential signaling used for high-speed data transmission.
  • LVCMOS/CMOS: Low Voltage Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor - A popular type of digital circuit design.
  • LVDS: Low-Voltage Differential Signaling is a type of electrical signaling that can support high data rates over long distances.
  • LVPECL: Low-Voltage Positive Emitter Coupled Logic is a low-voltage variant of PECL used for high-speed data transmission.
  • TTL: Transistor-Transistor Logic - A class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors.

Harmony's Range of Frequency Products

Harmony's crystal oscillators (XO) are designed to deliver exceptional low jitter noise performance across a wide range of sizes from 7050 to 2016 in frequencies from 32.768KHz to 220MHz, and various types such as SPXO, Differential (LV-PECL, LVDS, HCSL), VCXO, VC-TCXO, and TCXO. Harmony offers a diverse range of automotive-categorized quartz timing components (Xtal, Thermistor Xtal, and XO) in various sizes (5032 to 1612) and frequencies (1MHz to 160MHz) to meet different application needs. Our crystal resonators (Xtals) and crystal oscillators (XOs) are designed to provide precise timing signals, minimize jitter, and enhance overall performance in various data communication applications.

Applications of Frequency Products

Frequency products find their applications in a variety of devices:

  • Personal Computers (Desktop / Laptop / Tablet)
  • Mobile phones and Smartphones
  • Wearable (Smartwatches / Fitness trackers) devices
  • Digital cameras
  • Gaming consoles
  • Home entertainment systems (TV / Audio receivers / Set-Top-Box / Media players)

Metaverse Application

In a metaverse, where multiple virtual environments and interactions occur simultaneously, the use of Crystal resonators (Xtals) and Crystal oscillators (XOs) becomes crucial for creating a seamless and enjoyable user experience. They find their applications in:

  • Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) systems
  • Multiplayer Gaming and Social Platforms
  • Virtual currency and Blockchain

For further technical information, please visit our product pages. If you have specific requirements or need assistance, please contact us. Our team of experts is always ready to guide you through your frequency control journey.





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